Author Guidelines

The Journal of Leukocyte Biology requires that all authors read this section thoroughly and completely and that all submissions be made online. After reading the following information, select Home to begin the online submission process. If you have questions about submitting your manuscript, please e-mail jlbstaff@leukocytebiology.org or call 301-514-8667.

Effective July 1, 2016, JLB Accepting Format-Neutral Initial Submissions

JLB is making it more convenient to submit your research for consideration! Starting July 1, 2016 submit your papers in ANY format at FIRST submission (JLB format will be required if a decision to revise is given). Manuscripts do not need to be formatted according to JLB guidelines for an initial submission. The decision of whether to peer review will not be affected by formatting. However, the JLB Editor-in-Chief has the option to determine if the format presented impedes a clear evaluation of the results which may result in returning the article to authors for clarity.

Subsequent submissions (following a request for major or minor revisions) must adhere to ALL JLB formatting requirements, with an additional emphasis on figure format (see Mandatory Manuscript and Artwork Requirements When Submitting Revised Manuscripts).

Manuscript Submission
Submission Types
Manuscript Preparation
Tables and Figures
Online Supplemental Material
Mandatory Submission and Copyright Transfer Form
Accepted Manuscripts
Author Billing and Reprint Purchases
Reprints

Scope

The Journal of Leukocyte Biology (JLB) publishes original experimental and clinical research that provides new insights into the function of leukocytes and/or stromal cells at the molecular, structural, cellular and systemic level. The Journal scope includes all leukocytes (granulocytes, monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, T, B and innate lymphoid or NK/NKT cells) and/or leukocyte products together with associated stromal (endothelial, epithelial) cells studied in vitro and in the context of innate and adaptive immunity, development, homeostasis, host-pathogen interactions, immunotherapy and immunopathogenesis (in both vertebrate models and/or human studies). Pathologies of interest include immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, allergy, cancer, trauma, infections, inflammatory and iatrogenic diseases. JLB also publishes basic, translational and clinical reviews as well as commentaries on current journal content. Please note: Articles submitted by authors must be complete studies, not works in progress or reports of new techniques in the absence of new biological or mechanistic insight. Papers with development of methods in the absence of an application of this method towards highlighting a new biological insight or mechanism of action will be reviewed if deemed to be of general interest to JLB readership under the category of Technical Advance.

Editorial Policies

Review Process
Manuscripts Submitted from the Institution of an Editor
Prior Publication
Open Access Option
NIH Public Access Policy
Competing Financial Interests
Microarray/Genomics/Proteomics Data
Ethics Committee Approval
Misconduct
Press Access
Errata

Review Process

Manuscripts are evaluated at submission to ensure adherence to journal guidelines. Manuscripts may be returned to authors via Quality Control for correction without scientific evaluation. Submitted manuscripts are then reviewed by the Editor-in-Chief or an Associate Editor, who will assign it to a Board Member to contact potential referees. From the time the Editor-in-Chief receives a paper, up to the point the Board Member assigns referees, an internal editorial review is completed based on priority to limit referee requests to those manuscripts that are likely to be accepted and/or fit the interests of the journal readership. Once it is agreed to send the manuscript to referees, the Board Member will make a recommendation to the Editor-in-Chief based on his or her evaluation and that of the reviewers. The Editor-in-Chief makes a final determination and forwards the final decision to the corresponding author. The Editor-in-Chief will entertain significant and reasonable rebuttals to our final decisions via email to the journal staff. Consideration will be made after further review, however, this does not guarantee a change in decision. Every effort is made to return unreviewed manuscripts within 10 days and reviewed manuscripts within 4 weeks. Papers submitted by members of the Editorial Board are handled separately by the Editor-in-Chief and undergo anonymous peer review.

Please note manuscripts also will be evaluated for compliance to ethical standards and under the guidelines for dual use research. In addition to evaluating your approach and findings, reviewers and editors will examine your manuscript for concern related to:

Any concerns that arise during peer review may require clarification from authors and/or lead up to rejection of the manuscript.

After acceptance, all manuscripts are subject to an art review before publication to confirm illustration quality. Publication may be delayed if figure guidelines and/or quality are not optimal for publication.

Manuscripts Submitted from the Institution of an Editor

Manuscripts submitted from the institution of any Board Member, Associate or Deputy Editor, or the Editor-in-Chief are reviewed by editors from outside that institution. The Editorial Office ensures confidentiality and equity in reviewing all manuscripts.

Prior Publication

Authors must confirm that no similar paper (including book chapters) has been or will be submitted elsewhere. As an aid to reviewers, any unpublished articles that are related to, or could be perceived to overlap with, the submitted manuscript must be included as supplemental data.

Open Access Option

Authors of accepted manuscripts may have their articles made freely accessible on journal’s web site by paying an open access fee. The fee is $2,500 (USD) per article and is in addition to other author fees, such as page charges, color charges, reprints, supplemental files, etc. The journal also reserves the right to suspend making an article open access until authors have cleared other debts with the journal, such as publication charges. Authors should carefully consider which license they choose and whether or not it meets their funder’s requirements. Once an article has been published under a particular creative commons license, this license cannot be changed or revoked.
After the funds have cleared, the final version of the article will be made open access. The journal permits the following creative commons license types:

  • CC BY-NC : For more information on this creative commons license, visit: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
  • CC BY: For more information about this license, visit: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
  • Other Licenses: Authors wishing to use a different license must provide details on the Open Access Option Form. The journal will determine if it can accommodate other licenses on a case-by-case basis.
If you are interested in the open access option, please click here to download and complete this form.
Authors who received funding from agencies with open access publishing requirements may meet their funding requirements by selecting the open access option. (The journal will make a reasonable effort to help authors comply with these requirements, but ultimate responsibility, however, remains with the authors.) For these authors, upon payment of the fee, the journal will deposit the article in PubMed Central (PMC) and will authorize public posting on PMC and PMC mirror sites immediately upon deposition.

NIH Public Access Policy

Under the NIH Public Access Policy, NIH requires that all manuscripts (accepted after April 7, 2008) which resulted from research supported in whole or in part by NIH funds be submitted to PMC. The Society for Leukocyte Biology (SLB) will upload final published NIH-funded articles to PMC and will notify PMC to make the article free 12 months after final publication. This time period is consistent with existing policy which makes content publicly available 12 months after print publication, and assures compliance with the SLB copyright agreement. Questions regarding NIH Public Access Policy and publication in JLB should be directed to Jennifer Pesanelli at Competing Financial Interests

All authors must disclose any arrangements that could be considered to pose a financial conflict of interest regarding the submitted manuscript. Potential conflicts of interest must be described in the cover letter and be explicitly stated in the Conflict of Interest Disclosure section.

Microarray/RT-PCR/Genomics/Proteomics Data

JLB will not publish descriptive manuscripts that report microarray/genomics/proteomics data, unless such information can be considered of unusual immunological significance and/or include functional experiments that provide novel insight into mechanism. As with other scientific approaches, current experimental quantitation, verification, and statistical analyses are expected. Microarray experiments should be Minimum Information About a Microarray Experiment-compliant (MIAME). Whereas limited online space may be available for supplemental tables associated with the manuscript, complete microarray data must be deposited in the appropriate public database (e.g., GEO, ArrayExpress, or CIBEX), and must be accessible without restriction from the date of publication. An entry name or accession number must be included in the paper before publication. The accession number should be accompanied by the website address of the databank. Primer sequences must be listed in the Materials and Methods section, or included as a referenced paper that lists them.

Ethics Committee Approval

Human experiments: All work must be conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Papers describing experimental work on human participants must include: (1) a statement that the experiments were conducted with the understanding and the consent of each participant, and (2) a statement that the responsible ethical committee has approved the experiments.
Animal experiments: Articles describing experiments on living animals must include: (1) a full description of any anesthetic and surgical procedure used; (2) the source of institutional approval of methods; and (3) evidence that all possible steps were taken to avoid animals' suffering at each stage of the experiment. In experiments involving the use of muscle relaxants, a description of the precautions taken to ensure adequate anesthesia [J. Physiol. (1990) 420, xii–xiii] must be included.

Misconduct

JLB accepts research papers that are original works, no part of which has been submitted for publication or published elsewhere except as brief abstracts. Duplicate publication, falsification, plagiarism, or fabrication will be considered actionable misconduct. Misconduct does not include honest error or differences in interpretations or judgments of data.
If there is a suspicion or allegation of misconduct directed toward any author, JLB reserves the right to forward relevant material to the appropriate authorities at the author's institution for investigation. JLB recognizes its responsibility to ensure that the suspicion of misconduct has been addressed, but the journal does not make such determinations. Issues relating to contested authorship will be handled by the same procedure.
The Editor-in-Chief is responsible for the journal’s editorial conduct and compliance with relevant policies and procedures. When a report of suspected misconduct has been sent to the Editor-in-Chief, the following course of action will be taken. If the manuscript has yet to be published, all work on the manuscript will stop. No immediate action to published material (such as retracting the online preprint) will be taken until the matter is resolved. The Editor-in-Chief will contact the all authors asking for an explanation in a nonjudgmental manner. Should the author's response fail to resolve the situation satisfactorily, the Editor-in-Chief will contact the institution of the corresponding author. The institution should then make an inquiry and report back to the Editor-in-Chief. Until the matter is clarified, no papers by any authors of the disputed manuscript will be considered for publication.
If scientific misconduct is confirmed by institutional review, the Editor-in-Chief will decide upon the appropriate action. Violations considered severe may warrant official withdrawal of a published article or rapid rejection of a manuscript at any stage before publication. If the infraction is less severe, the Editor-in-Chief will send the corresponding author a letter of reprimand. If no scientific misconduct is found, the manuscript (if unpublished) will be scheduled for publication. For errors in a published article not deemed to be misconduct, an Erratum or Letter to the Editor will be published.

Press Access

Members of the press, public affairs officers, and other science writers may request pre-publication copies of articles. Usually these articles are available on the journal’s web site as preprints. Credentialed members of the press may request free online access to the journal. For further details, please contact Cody Mooneyhan at cmooneyhan@faseb.org, phone (301) 634-7104.

Errata

JLB makes every effort publish error-free manuscripts by providing authors with page proofs before publication. There are occasions, however, when it is necessary to publish a correction. Errata may be sent directly to Mary Hayden, Production Manager, at mhayden@faseb.org.


Manuscript Submission

The manuscript submission process starts by pressing the “Submit Manuscript” link on the corresponding author's “home” page after logging into the submission system (www.jlb-submit.org). Please be sure to gather all of the following required manuscript information listed below BEFORE starting the submission process. JLB highly recommends authors consider the assistance of third-party, pre-submission editorial services. All manuscripts should be submitted by the corresponding author.

  • Corresponding author, including first and last name, postal address, work telephone numbers, and e-mail address. Contributing authors, including first and last name and current e-mail address
  • Title (not to exceed 130 characters) and running title
  • One-sentence summary (25 words) capturing the most important point of the manuscript must be included on the title page for all papers
  • Abstract
  • Manuscript files (see Technical Requirements for file preparation guidelines and restrictions)
  • Figure files (see Technical Requirements for file preparation guidelines and restrictions).
  • Names, addresses, and current e-mail addresses of five potential reviewers that you have not published with during the last 5 years
  • Cover letter including the following information: a statement affirming that all authors concur with the submission and that the material submitted for publication has not been previously reported and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; and a statement regarding conflicting financial interest
  • Authors have an option to include their ORCID number. Corresponding Authors may utilize this option during submission.
  • Contributing Authors should update their "Profile" (at bottom of the home page under "General Tasks") with
  • their ORCID number.

Ready to Submit
After all the required manuscript information described above has been gathered, go to www.jlb-submit.org and follow the prompts.

Submission Process
The submission process has four steps: Files, Manuscript Information, Validate, and Submit. Each step contains sub-steps that can be accessed by clicking on their respective tabs. Navigating through this “Tab View” will save any entered information each time a new tab is clicked (or if the boxes “Save and Continue” or “Next” are clicked). The steps and sub-steps are:

  • Files
    • Upload Files – Allows the user to upload files into the system. A screen asking for the actual file locations (via an open file dialog) will appear. After completing this screen, files will be sent to be converted to a PDF for the peer review process.
    • Remove Files – Allows the user to remove previously uploaded files.
    • Replace Files – Allows the user to replace any previously submitted files with another file.
    • File Type – Prompts the user to choose the “file type” that corresponds to the uploaded document. The eight basic types of files are: Author Cover Letter, Article File, Figures, Tables, Data Sets, Additional Figure Data, Supplemental Material, and Video.
    • File Description – Allows the user to describe the content of each file. When uploading a file type labeled “Figure,” “Table,” or “Supplemental Material,” it is required to give a brief description of the content that is included in the file.
    • File Order – Allows the user to rearrange files to be displayed at the author's discretion and provides the option to merge PDF files into a single PDF file to display to the Editor and Reviewers. Upon completion, the user must select the checkbox indicating completion of the ordering and selection process.
  • Manuscript Information
    • Title, Running Title, Summary Sentence, and Abstract – It is required that the author provide a title, running title, abstract, and a suggested summary sentence. The submission system has word or character limits for titles, running titles, and abstracts.
    • Authors – This tab prompts the user to submit general information about the author. The fields marked with an asterisk (*) are required, and must be completed to continue the submission process.
    • Keywords and Subject Areas – Here the author provides the subject areas of the manuscript from the list provided. Information given here will be used to identify potential reviewers from the JLB database. If needed, the author can provide new keywords for the manuscript by typing these in the “other” box.
    • Detailed Information – This screen asks for more information about the manuscript. Questions cover subjects such as conflicts of interest and dual publication.
    • Author Reviewer Suggestions – This screen allows the user to suggest reviewers for the peer review process. The author can also provide the names of reviewers to exclude from the peer review process.
  • Validate
    • Approve Files – The screen allows the user to review the PDF files and verify that the manuscript has been uploaded and converted to the PDF format correctly.
    • Approve Manuscript – This screen provides the user with all the information gathered from the submission process. It will provide a summary of all of the data entered so far, with the option to change any item.
  • Submit
  • This is the final step of the submission process. The system will check to make sure everything is completed before the manuscript is submitted. If the manuscript is ready for submission, there will be text that reads “Your manuscript is ready to be submitted. Click the link below to finalize your submission.” Otherwise, the author will be asked to modify the submission. Throughout the system, authors will see red arrows to highlight action items that should be addressed.

Manuscript Status
After an author approves a manuscript, the status of the manuscript will be available in one of the following ways:

  • By logging onto the system with a username and password
  • By clicking on the link represented by the manuscript tracking number and abbreviated title
  • By clicking on the “Check Status” link at the bottom of the displayed page.

This procedure will display tracking information about where a manuscript is in the submission/peer-review process.

Revised Manuscripts
Authors are allowed nine months to submit a revised manuscript. Papers that are not returned within nine months of the date of the decision letter will be considered as NEW and will be subject to a complete review. Revised papers will be reevaluated by the all or some of the original reviewers and editors. Manuscript submission information should adhere to all manuscript requirements, with an additional emphasis on figure format (see Mandatory Manuscript and Artwork Requirements When Submitting Revised Manuscripts).
In addition, revisions should include (1) an unmarked, and (2) marked or highlighted version of the revised paper with all changes made in response to the reviewer. The unmarked version is to be submitted as the main manuscript "Article" file, and the marked or highlighted manuscript should be uploaded as a "Marked Up Manuscript" file.


Submission Types

JLB publishes full-length, fully documented research articles, reviews, and technical advances. Manuscripts will be reviewed and published according to research subject areas. Authors must select a corresponding topic from one of those listed below at the time of submission:

  • Host Defense and Pathophysiology
  • Cell Development, Differentiation, and Trafficking
  • Inflammation, Extracellular Mediators, and Effector Molecules
  • Receptors, Signal Transduction, and Genes
  • Translational and Clinical Immunology
  • Systems Biology and Immunogenetics

Publications will be further defined by the type of submission. The author must select the type of paper at the time of submission:

  • Articles
    • Full-Length Research Article
    • Brief Conclusive Report
    • Technical Advance
  • Reviews
    • Author-initiated (unsolicited) Review
  • Editorial Commentaries
  • Letters to Editor

Other manuscript types are considered for publication by invitation only:

  • Invited Review
  • Editorial Commentary
  • Meeting Overview (Mini-Review or Review)
  • Meeting Article (Original Research)
  • Meeting Brief Conclusive Report


Full-Length Research Articles
Articles are fully documented original research papers between 22,000 and 45,000 characters (not counting spaces and not taking into account Material and Methods or Reference sections) with fewer than 12 display items (Figures and Tables), and fewer than 80 references. Articles contain the following sections, in this order: Title Page, Abbreviations Page, Abstract (250 words), Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Authorship, Acknowledgments, Conflict of Interest Disclosure, References, Figure Legends, Tables, and Figures.

Pivotal Advance Articles
Articles or Brief Conclusive Reports may be selected by the editors to be published as a Pivotal Advance. A Pivotal Advance is subjected to additional review by JLB’s editors for scientific novelty, originality, quality of approach, and overall impact. If a manuscript is classified as a Pivotal Advance after review, the editorial board member or one of the referees will be asked to contribute a corresponding editorial commentary that will be published with the article.

Brief Conclusive Reports (BCRs)
These are short reports of outstanding interest that focus on new and important findings. This format is intended for exciting observations that have the potential to open up new avenues of research and can be described using fewer figures and less text than an Article. They should consist of a 200 word Abstract, a brief Materials and Methods section (~3,000 characters), text as noted below, and should not exceed eight double-spaced pages of 12-point type or 22,000 characters (not counting spaces and not taking into account Material and Methods or Reference sections). The manuscript should include no more than 6 figures and/or tables, and no more than 40 references. Brief Conclusive Reports contain the same sections as Articles; however, Results and Discussion must be combined. Brief Conclusive Reports contain the following sections, in this order: Title Page, Abbreviations Page, Abstract (200 words), Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Authorship, Acknowledgments, Conflict of Interest Disclosure, References, Figure Legends, Tables, and Figures. Brief Conclusive Reports may include up to six (6) units of supplemental data per manuscript (see supplemental data).

Technical Advance Articles
These are short reports of outstanding interest that focus on new and important methods development of interest to JLB readership. This format is intended for exciting new methods that have the potential to open up new avenues of research and can be described using fewer figures and less text than an Article. Because JLB is not a methods journal per se, only those articles scored as having high priority by the Editorial Board at submission will be considered for review. Technical Advances should consist of a 200 word Abstract and should not exceed eight double-spaced pages of 12-point type or 22,000 characters (not counting spaces and not taking into account the Reference section). The manuscript should include no more than 6 figures and/or tables, and no more than 40 references. Technical Advance manuscripts contain the same sections as Articles; however, Results and Discussion must be combined. Technical Advances contain the following sections, in this order: Title Page, Abbreviations Page, Abstract (200 words), Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Authorship, Acknowledgments, Conflict of Interest Disclosure, References, Figure Legends, Tables, and Figures.

Invited and Author-Initiated (unsolicited) Reviews and Mini-Reviews
The journal publishes full-length invited and uninvited review articles. Reviews contain the following sections in this order: Title Page, Abbreviations Page, Abstract, Introduction, Text with labeled topics and subtopics, Concluding Remarks, Authorship, Acknowledgments, Conflict of Interest Disclosure, References, Figure Legends, Tables, and Figures. Reviews with fewer than 90 references and with three illustrations (figures/tables) or fewer will be categorized as “Mini-Reviews.” All reviews require a summary sentence that describes the scope of the review and at least one original figure to illustrate the discussion.

Letters to the Editor
Letters to the Editor commenting on recently published work in the journal are welcomed. These are published at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief who reserves the right to make minor changes in the text to improve the composition. If appropriate, the authors of the original work will be invited to respond and these letters will be published in tandem in the same issue. Letters to the Editor should be 500–1,000 words, with up to six references, and should follow JLB formatting conventions.

Editorial Commentaries
Personal perspectives on published articles are solicited by the editors. Editorials should provide a focused discussion of the paper from a wider perspective and be provocative and insightful to readers. In order to make this feature complementary to the corresponding article rather than a restatement of conclusions, visuals reviewing current dogmas and gaps in knowledge, tables with open questions, or controversies citing opposing papers are invited and encouraged. Editorials should be no longer than two published journal pages, i.e., 1,000–2,000 words in length (including figure legends and no more than 10 references) and must include one color illustration/figure or table to help readers quickly grasp the focus of the discussion. Figures may be re-worked by the publication's art department to comply with JLB formats. Provide a short “perspective-based” title (e.g., “Toll receptors lost in translation,” “Heart and inflammation: new life to old foe,” “BCG and T-regs: who knew?”). Do not title the editorial the same as the manuscript it discusses. Editorials are intended to serve as an aid to placing findings in a larger context from the perspective of a leader in the field with a focus on future research and on the directions these findings may open. As much as possible, editorials should not be conceptually redundant with the discussion angle provided by the corresponding article’s authors and should not seek to serve as comprehensive reviews. Commentaries may be more insight- and opinion-based. Authors are required to include in summary sentence that describes the scope of commentary with words such as “…expands the argument…,” “…focuses on the…,” “…discusses the….,” “…challenges the…,” etc. At online submission, authors are requested to copy and paste the first introductory paragraph of the commentary into the abstract box of the submission form. Authors wishing to submit a response to a published Editorial Commentary by a “counter-commentary” or Letter to the Editor, should contact the Editor-in-Chief.

Meeting Articles
Invited research articles will follow the guidelines as described above for Articles but are submitted with an established deadline as part of a cluster of articles from a focused scientific meeting. They will be published under a special section in the journal referred to in the Table of Contents as “Current Topic Overview.” All manuscripts submitted under this mechanism must meet the criteria of a regular research manuscript and be based on communicating new and important findings in the field. Please refer to the instructions for regular Articles above for a detailed description. As articles, they should contain the following sections in this order: Title Page, Abbreviations Page, Abstract (250 words), Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Authorship, Acknowledgments, Conflict of Interest Disclosure, References, Figure Legends, Tables, and Figures.

Meeting Brief Conclusive Reports
Invited Meeting Brief Conclusive Reports follow the guidelines above for Brief Conclusive Reports, but are submitted with an established deadline as part of a cluster of articles from a focused scientific meeting. They will be published under a special section in the journal referred to in the Table of Contents as “Current Topic Overview.” Please refer to the instructions for Brief Conclusive Reports for a detailed description. Meeting BCRs should contain the following sections in this order: Title Page, Abbreviations Page, Abstract (200 words), Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Authorship, Acknowledgments, Conflict of Interest Disclosure, References, Figure Legends, Tables, and Figures.

Meeting Overview Reviews and Mini-Reviews
Invited Meeting Overview Reviews cover the content of a recent presentation in the context of the field in general, are in Review Article style, and are submitted with an established deadline as part of a cluster of articles from a focused scientific meeting. Description of primary research not yet published should not be included since the Review format does not allow authors to present data. Meeting Overview Reviews should address emerging or evolving concepts related to the field; i.e., they should not merely reiterate well-established concepts that do not need critical review. Readers see these critical overviews as an aid in defining future directions for the field rather than an exclusive summary of the author’s presentation at a meeting. Reviews with fewer than 90 references and with three illustrations (figures/tables) or fewer will be categorized as “Mini-Reviews.” All reviews require a summary sentence that describes the scope of the review and at least one original figure to illustrate the discussion. Figures may be re-worked by the publication's art department to comply with JLB formats.


Manuscript Preparation

Manuscripts must be submitted in MS Word (DOC), or Rich Text Format (RTF). Times, Times New Roman, Courier, Helvetica, Arial, and the Symbol fonts are recommended. Other fonts included in the standard U.S. editions of Microsoft Office are likely, but not guaranteed, to successfully convert. All other fonts may not convert at all or may appear blocky and hard to read when converted. Proprietary fonts or fonts with licensing restrictions are not recommended and may not convert at all. For best quality conversions of special characters and symbols, use the Symbol font. Characters and symbols from any of the fonts in the standard U.S. editions of Microsoft Office are likely, but not guaranteed, to successfully convert as well. The most common cause of fonts and special characters converting incorrectly is improper licensing or font installation on the user's PC.

Manuscript Organization
Articles should be organized as follows: Title page, Abbreviations Page, Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Authorship, Acknowledgments, Conflict of Interest Disclosure, References, Figure Legends, Tables, and Figures. For Brief Conclusive Reports and Technical Advance manuscripts, Results and Discussion must be combined. Reviews should be organized as follows: Title page, Abbreviations Page, Abstract, Text with labeled topics and subtopics, Concluding Remarks, Authorship, Acknowledgments, Conflict of Interest Disclosure, References, Figure Legends, Tables, and Figures. Page numbers must be incorporated at the bottom of each page of the text document. Explanatory footnotes should not be used; include all explanatory information within the text of the manuscript.

Format requirements
Text must be in a 12-point font (not compressed) and double line-spaced throughout. Each of the elements listed below should start on a new page; all elements should appear in the order listed.


Title Page
  1. Title – not to exceed 130 characters and spaces followed by author(s) and affiliation(s). Use the following symbols in this order to designate author affiliations: *, †, ‡, §, ¶, ||, #, **, ††, ‡‡, §§, ¶¶, || ||, ##. Authors can also be further identified using superscript numbers to distinguish joint authorship (e.g., joint first authors, joint senior or principal investigators).
  2. A summary sentence of 25 words or fewer briefly describing the main point of the paper (see below).
  3. A short running title, not to exceed 50 characters and spaces.
  4. Corresponding author information – name, street address (no box numbers), telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address.
  5. A list of three to six Key Words that do not appear in the title.
  6. Total character count, not including spaces and not including the Material and Methods and Reference sections; total number of figures, total number of color figures; total number of references; total number of words in the Abstract; and total number of words in the summary sentence.

Summary Sentence (to be included on Title Page):
Do not restate the title; instead focus on the main findings or implication of the manuscript (for example, manuscripts often include a summary-type sentence in the last sentence of the Abstract or the first sentence of the Discussion). The objective of this sentence is to clearly relate the main point of the paper, in conjunction with the manuscript title, and both will appear together in the table of contents. This sentence may be revised by the referees and/or editors for brevity, impact or clarity.

Format examples and actual sentences provided upon submission and how they were edited for use by JLB editors are listed below:

(a) Summary Sentence for Letter to the Editor:
“Letter to discuss Author et al…”, “Letter to address Author et al…” with objective of communication stated.

(b) Summary sentence for Editorials:
“Discussion of Author et al that expands the argument…”, “Discussion of Author et al that focuses on the…”, “Commentary of Author et al that discusses the….”, “Commentary of Author et al that challenges the…” Examples:

*Author provided example 1: “The intricate regulation of C/EBPA transcriptional activity reminds us of the enormous complexity of myeloid proliferation and differentiation and the delicate balance between normal myelopoiesis and transformation to AML.”
Edited example 1: “Discussion on the intricate regulation of C/EBPA transcriptional activity and the delicate balance between normal myelopoiesis and transformation to AML.”

*Author provided example 2: “P-glycoprotein activity in the thymus increases as thymocytes mature. Findings provide a mechanism whereby protease inhibitors effectively suppress viral replication in thymocytes”
Edited example 2: “Discussion on impact of anti-HIV therapy on the thymus and limitations on the in vivo implications of Sleasman et al report.”

(c) Summary sentence for Review articles:
“Review focuses on…”, “Review addresses…” Example:

*Author provided example 1: “In this mini-review we will analyze how dendritic cells are controlled in their function by epithelial cells and how this participates in bacterial handling in the gut.”
Edited example 1: “Review of how dendritic cells are modulated by epithelial cells and implications on bacterial handling in the gut.”

(d) Summary sentence for research articles:
Sentence should directly start with an impact statement and should not include introductory text such as “Data presented to…” or “Presented is the…” Examples:

*Author provided example 1: “In this article we discuss cellular and molecular sources of IFN-I during virus infections with emphasis on plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and dsRNA sensors.”
Edited example 1: “Cellular and molecular sources of IFN-I during virus infections with emphasis on plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and dsRNA sensors.”

*Author provided example 2: “This study aims to dissect the molecular mechanisms by which intestinal epithelial cells and protein antigen induce functional tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells.”
Edited example 2: “Molecular mechanisms identified by which intestinal epithelial cells and protein antigen induce functional tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells.”
*Author provided example 3: “These findings identify key differences in monocyte-derived DC that impact adaptive immunity, and suggest IL-15 promotes Th17 and Th1 responses by skewing monocytes into IL15-DC.”
Edited example 3: “IL-15 promotes Th17 and Th1 responses by its activity on modulating monocytes into IL15-DC in the presence of GM-CSF.”

(e) Summary sentence for Technical Advances:
“New method described for….” “New approach…” “New protocol….” Examples:

*Author provided example 1: “Soluble OX40 triggers MCs, allowing to study OX40L-signaling, inhibits MC degranulation as regulatory T cells and reaches MCs upon in vivo challenge”
Edited example 1: "New method to study inhibition of mast cell degranulation by showing that soluble OX40 (sOX40) mimics activity of Treg interaction by binding and inhibiting MC degranulation."

*Author provided example 2 and accepted as submitted: A novel protocol for studying neutrophil differentiation in vivo in the human setting as an alternative to models based on in vitro differentiation of cell lines.

Abbreviations Page
The abbreviations page should immediately follow the title page and should contain an alphabetized list of all abbreviations used in the article and each abbreviation's definition.
Abstract The abstract should not exceed 250 words (200, if a Brief Conclusive Report or Technical Advance). Include rationale, objectives, a hypothesis (if primary research is described), species of cells/animals involved, main findings, and conclusions. We suggest authors start the abstract with a sentence similar to “This study tested the hypothesis that…” and conclude with a statement which indicates whether or not the hypothesis was supported.

Introduction
The introduction should provide readers with background about the research reported in the manuscript. It sets the stage for the paper by putting the topic into perspective for readers.

Materials and Methods
The Materials and Methods section should contain experimental protocols and describe the origin of any unusual or special materials, tissue, cell lines, or organisms. It is appropriate in this section to provide data to support the identity or purity of reagents, the reliability of methods, the sensitivity of an instrument, or the essential features of a genotype. Companies mentioned in this section should include the name of the company and location (city, state/province, and country). Authors should put most of the experimental detail into the Materials and Methods section, leaving the Results section for exposition of the experimental design and results.

Results
Data included should be original, fully labeled, and essential to the report. Text should be presented with concise, accurate subheadings (in Brief Conclusive Reports and Technical Advance manuscripts, Results and Discussion sections are combined).

Discussion
This section should expand on the information included in the results section. Care should be taken not to merely reiterate statements made in the previous section but to discuss the pertinence and importance of the findings (in Brief Conclusive Reports and Technical Advance manuscripts, Results and Discussion sections are combined).

Authorship [endif]--
List contributions made by each of the authors to the article. Use initials to identify authors. All authors must be able to justify their participation in the study and should have substantially contributed to the study’s conception, design, and experimental or analytical performance. Logistical and financial contributions are not criteria for authorship and should be addressed in acknowledgement section.

Changes in Authorship
Authors should determine the order of authorship among themselves and should settle any disagreements before submitting their manuscript. Changes in authorship (ie, order, addition, and deletion of authors) should be discussed and approved by all authors at submission (or resubmission). Any requests for changes in authorship after an active submission/review or acceptance of a manuscript submission and before publication should be explained in writing to the editor in a letter from the corresponding author including copies from e-mails/letters from all authors agreeing to the change. An e-mail to all authors will be sent to confirm the acceptance of any change in authorship if implemented.

Co-principal investigators:
Identification of multiple principal investigators is encouraged. If two or more co-authors are equal in status, they may be identified by an asterisk symbol on the title page with the caption ‘These authors contributed equally to this work’ immediately under the address list. If more than three co-authors are equal in status, the role of each of the co-principal investigators must be clearly described in the Authorship section.

Corresponding Author(s):
If you wish to have two corresponding authors listed for the paper, you must designate one of them to communicate with the Editorial and Production offices. The journal regards the corresponding author as the point of contact for queries about the published paper.

Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments should be made only to those who have made a substantial contribution to the study. Authors are responsible for obtaining written permission from individuals acknowledged by name since readers infer endorsement of data and conclusions. Sources of funding, institutional and corporate credits must also be placed in this section.

Conflict of Interest Disclosure
All authors must disclose any arrangements that could be considered to pose a conflict of interest regarding the submitted manuscript. Potential conflicts of interest must be explicitly stated in Conflict of Interest Disclosure section. If no conflicts of interest exist, this section should contain the sentence: “The authors declare no conflict of interest."

References
Reference citations should appear in numerical order in brackets throughout the text. The reference list should be double-spaced on a new page at the end of the paper, and references should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are cited. List all authors and inclusive pages. Unpublished experiments, personal communications, or papers submitted for publication should not be included in the reference list but should appear parenthetically in the text as “unpublished results.” Written approval by the person(s) cited in personal communications must accompany the manuscript (these approvals may be uploaded in PDF format in the Supplemental File section of the manuscript submission system). Papers accepted but not yet published may appear in the reference list with the name of the journal followed by the words “In press.” One copy of each reference in press must be submitted with the manuscript (these copies may be submitted in the Supplemental File section of the manuscript submission system).

Figure Legends
Include a short title after the figure number and follow with a short explanation (ideally no more than 150 words) which provides sufficient detail to make the data intelligible without reference to the text. Methods described in detail in the Materials and Methods section should not be repeated in the legend. Number figures consecutively with Arabic numerals in the order of their appearance in the text.

Abbreviations of journals should conform to those used in Index Medicus, National Library of Medicine. The following style should be used:

  • Journal Articles: First author’s last name, initials, second author's last name, initials, etc. Year. Title of article, Name of journal. Volume, inclusive pages. [Example: Kashara, K., Strieter, R. M., Chensue, S. W. 1991. Mononuclear cell adherence induces neutrophil chemotactic factor/interleukin-8 gene expression. J. Leukoc. Biol. 50:287–295.]
  • Books: Authors’ names as above. Year. Title of Book, Publisher, City, State. Inclusive pages cited. [Example: Darnell, J., Lodish, H., Baltimore, D. 1990. Molecular Cell Biology, Scientific American Books, New York, p. 261–313.]
  • Chapters in Books: Authors’ names as above. Year. Title of article. In: Title of Book. Initials and last name(s) of editor(s). Publisher, City, State. Inclusive pages of article. [Example: Stewart, C. C. 1990. Multiparameter Analysis of Leukocytes by Flow Cytometry. In: Methods of Cell Biology (Z. Darzynkiewicz and H. A. Crissman, eds.), Academic Press, San Diego, 427–450.]
  • Articles published ahead of print: Authors’ names as above. Year. Title of article, Name of journal. Volume, inclusive pages. [Example: Gregory M. Orlowski, G. M., Sharma, S., Colbert, J. D., Bogyo, M., Robertson, S. A., Rock, K. L. 2017. Frontline Science: Multiple cathepsins promote inflammasome-independent, particle-induced cell death during NLRP3-dependent IL-1β activation J Leukoc Biol doi:10.1189/jlb.3HI0316-152R]

Style
Use American-English spelling and minimize the use of nonstandard abbreviations. Italicize genes and loci, and use approved names listed in the appropriate nomenclature database. Avoid using multiple names for genes and proteins; alternative names should be given on first mention only. If specific issues are not addressed, JLB follows Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, seventh edition, published by the Council of Science Editors, Inc.


Tables and Figures

JLB only publishes original figures and tables. No articles, including review articles or editorials, can include reproduced images or tables from previous publications without permission from the source. Copyright and JLB policy precludes the use of images/tables under permission from other sources.

Tables
Number tables consecutively with Arabic numerals in the order of their appearance in the text. Tables must be typed double-spaced and submitted in a separate document in MS Word (DOC), or Rich Text Format (RTF). Tables should always use rows and columns to correlate two variables. Tables should be placed on pages separate from the text and be self-contained and self-explanatory. Do not divide into sub tables and do not use vertical rules. Label each table at the top with a Roman numeral followed by a short descriptive title. Insert explanatory material and footnotes below the table. Designate footnotes using lowercase superscript italic letters (a, b, c) reading horizontally across the table. Supply units of measure at the heads of columns. Abbreviations that are used only in a table should be defined in the footnotes to that table.

Figures (Initial Submission)
Figures can be uploaded together or separately as TIFF, EPS or PDF formats. All figures/tables will be merged with the text into one PDF file for review. Figures must be clear and easy to read in the merged file as well as in each individual file. Editors will return manuscripts prior to review if the figures are poor quality. Authors should bear in mind that the first impression of your manuscript as viewed by the reviewers is very important and presentable, easy to read figures are a key factor in this regard. If a submission is accepted for publication, unnecessary color figures will be converted to grayscale by the compositor.

Figure File Formats
Figures must be clearly labeled directly on each figure (Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.) TIFF and EPS files produce the best images, but PPT and PDF formats are also acceptable. Figures should be publication quality and sized to fit on a standard piece of paper (8.5" X 11" or A4). The system will attempt to resize figures larger than these dimensions, but is not always successful. Editors may return manuscripts with figures not sized to these specifications prior to review or re-review. For best results, the width of the image should be close to 8 inches or the height should be close to 10 inches, whichever is the longest dimension. In Photoshop, to change the print dimensions and resolution of an image: choose "Image," then "Image Size." To maintain the current proportions of image width to image height, select "Constrain Proportions." This option automatically updates the width as the height is changed, and vice versa. Under document size, enter new values for the height and width. If desired, choose a new unit of measurement. Note that for width, the columns option uses the width and gutter sizes specified in the units and rulers preferences.

If an image file with layers is submitted, some items may not be visible in the converted PDF. In a flattened image, all visible layers are merged into the background which greatly reduces the file size. Flattening an image discards all hidden layers. To flatten an image in Photoshop, make sure that all layers are visible, choose "Layer, then, "Flatten Image or choose "Flatten Image" from the "Layers" palette menu. If you are not satisfied with the results of your image conversion, try submitting a PDF that you have created yourself. In this manner, you will know exactly how the image will appear during the peer review process. Do not embed images in text/word processing files. Images may be embedded in PowerPoint files, but the embedded image should be of publication quality. Original figures should be numbered with Arabic numerals and treated consecutively in the text.

In addition, please adhere to the following guidelines when you prepare your figures:

  • Do not move, remove, introduce, obscure or enhance any specific feature within any (digital) image;
  • Do not adjust contrast, color balance or brightness unless applied to the entire figure and disclosed in the figure legend;
  • Do not obscure, eliminate, or misrepresent the originally-captured information;
  • Make the width of all lines at least .75 pt; and
  • If parts of different gels, fields, or exposures are grouped or rearranged, then dividing lines must be used to indicate these changes, and disclosure of the arrangement must be added in the figure legend. Even if the arrangement is from the same capture, the rearrangement or deletion of lanes, fields, etc, is discouraged, but if there is any such deletion or rearrangement, it must be disclosed in the legend.


If a manuscript is accepted for publication, unnecessary color figures will be converted to black and white prior to layout. These changes will be reflected in the authors’ page proofs.

Videos
Inclusion of videos with the online version of the published paper is at the discretion of the editors; the editors also may determine that some videos should be published online as supplemental information. Discs, videotape, etc. containing videos or audio will not be inserted into or mailed with the printed journal. Video submissions for viewing online should be in one of the following formats: AVI, MPG, QT, or MOV. Videotape and film are not accepted. Videos should be brief whenever possible (2–5 minutes). Longer videos will require longer download times and editors, reviewers, and readers may have difficulty playing them online. Videos should be restricted to the most critical aspects of your research. A longer procedure can be restructured as several shorter videos and submitted in that form. Please compress files to use as little bandwidth as possible and to avoid excessive download times. It is recommended that video files be no larger than 25 megabytes. A caption with a brief description should be provided for each video and submitted in a separate document in DOC, or RTF format. If a paper is accepted for publication authors may wish to supply the editorial office with several different resolutions of the video files for posting online. This allows viewers with slower connections to access the video.

Mandatory Manuscript and Artwork Requirements When Submitting Revised Manuscripts
When submitting revised manuscripts to the Journal of Leukocyte Biology for re-review, following these instructions will ensure the fastest and highest quality publication if the article is given final acceptance:

Text Files: Revised Manuscripts, Tables, and Figure Legends
Authors should follow the same instructions for preparing manuscripts as they did when first submitting to the journal. In short, manuscripts and tables should be submitted in MS Word (DOC) or Rich Text (RTF) formats only. At this stage, other formats, such as PDF, will not be accepted for text files. In addition, revised manuscripts should include (1) an unmarked, and (2) a marked or highlighted version of the revised paper with all changes made in response to reviewers. The unmarked version is to be submitted as the main manuscript "Article" file and the marked or highlighted manuscript should be uploaded as a "Marked-Up Manuscript File."

Image Files: Figures
Each figure must be submitted as a separate file (i.e., figure 1 one file, figure 2 in a second file, etc.) and must be clearly named and labeled (i.e., figure 1 is labeled figure 1 and named figure 1). Number figures consecutively with Arabic numerals in the order of their appearance in the text. The width of all lines should be at least .75 pt and figure files for revised manuscripts must be submitted in the following formats:
Figure File Formats:
1) Vector EPS files: vector graphics provide the highest quality for figures that contain text or wording.
2) Rastered TIFF files: TIFF files must be supplied at the following resolutions:
a) Halftones (pictures) - 300 dpi
b) Combination halftones (combination of pictures and text labeling) - 600 dpi
c) Monochrome/line art images (pure black and white with no grayscale) - 1200 dpi
3) PDF files: PDF files must be created using the proper Acrobat Distiller options. Complete instructions for creating optimized PDF files can be found by clicking here.
4) Microsoft PowerPoint: PowerPoint files will be accepted, but must be created properly if they are to be used for publication. Artwork embedded into PowerPoint must meet the same resolution requirements as TIFF files. Fonts allowed in PowerPoint files are Arial, Helvetica, Times New Roman, and Symbol.
DO NOT supply files in other formats, such as GIF, JPEG, BMP, PNG, etc. Other image file formats are usually poor quality and not intended for print publication. Supplying files in any format other than vector EPS, rasterized TIFF, “press quality” PDF, or PowerPoint will cause the manuscript to be returned prior to review, possibly causing publication delays. Many software products exist that can produce figure files suitable for publication, including free programs that can be downloaded online. Adobe software is highly recommended for processing and submitting your digital artwork.

Color:
Color artwork must be supplied as RGB (not CMYK). Please note that figures containing unnecessary color will be converted to black and white prior to layout. These changes will be reflected in the authors’ page proofs.

Figure Size and Layout:
1) Figures must be cropped and supplied as close to final size as possible. Preferred size is 3.5 inches for 1-column images, 5 inches for 1½-column images, and 7.25 inches for 2-column images.
2) Multiple panel layouts must only have .25 inch space between parts. Layouts must contain as little “white space” as possible.

Fonts and text size:
1) Arial, Helvetica, Times New Roman and Symbol are required fonts for digital artwork. Deviating from these standard fonts will cause publication delays as figures will be returned to authors for correction. All fonts must be embedded when saving files.
2) Figure text size must be 7–10 pt.
3) Figure part labels (i.e. A, B, C, etc.) must be 12 pt. Helvetica Bold and placed in a white square in the upper left corner of all figure parts. Please be sure to use capital letters for figure part labels.

Text size will change if figure needs to be reduced or increased. Supplying 1 column figures at sizes greater than 3.5 inches will result in smaller text when size is decreased. The same rule applies for increasing figures.

Supplemental Data:
Six "units" (approximate pages) may be included as supplemental data uploaded and submitted separately from the text file of the article. The legends for your supplemental data cannot be included in the main article text but must be included with the figures themselves.

Cover Submissions:
The journal cover includes space for an illustration that changes every month. We invite authors to bring illustrations to our attention that would make a particularly striking cover. These may be figures from an article or designs that reflect its subject matter. A brief cover legend should be submitted with the image. Additional information can be obtained from Amy Huter-Imming at jlbstaff@leukocytebiology.org.


Online Supplemental Material

Essential information that cannot be presented in the printed journal, such as large data sets or videos, can be included as supplemental material. Supplemental figures and tables that are not essential to the conclusions of the paper, but are both useful and important, may also be included online. Supplemental material must be cited both at the relevant place in the manuscript and in the legends of any related figures. Supplemental data that has been published previously in ANY form for ANY amount of time IS NOT permitted. This includes, but is not limited to, supplemental data that has been published as part of a full manuscript, as part of another manuscript’s supplemental data, or as “stand alone” information on a web site. Authors also may not submit supplemental data that are under consideration for publication elsewhere. A paragraph providing a brief description of each item must appear at the end of the Materials and Methods section under the heading “Online Supplemental Material.”
The legends for your supplemental data cannot be included in the main article text but must be included with the figures themselves. All material submitted as supplemental material should have a legend or short explanation explaining what is included. Figures and videos must also be accompanied by a text legend. All supplemental material will be peer reviewed with the manuscript and approved by the editors, but will be posted online “as is” without copy editing, layout, or any other revision or modification by journal staff.
Links to supplemental material will appear in two places in the online journal: in the Table of Contents and in the information on the first page of the full-text article. In the print version, the availability of additional online material will be indicated in a footnote on the first page of the article: “The online version of this paper, found at www.jleukbio.org, includes supplemental information.”
Authors may submit up to 6 units of supplemental data per manuscript. A unit is defined as one 8.5 x 11 inch page of text or figures with 1 inch margins using Times New Roman, Courier, Arial, and/or Tahoma fonts at 9 points or larger. For multimedia files (i.e. audio or video), each file is considered one unit. No unit may exceed 25 megabytes in size, and all supplemental units must be clearly labeled as such within the unit file itself, in the submission system, and in the file name. Each supplemental unit must be uploaded into the submission system separately. Supplemental data, including legends, etc., may not be included in the submitted article’s manuscript or figure files unless authors are specifically instructed to incorporate this information into a revised manuscript by a reviewer or an editor during the revision process. Authors may not submit supplemental data in compressed file formats (i.e. .zip, .bin, .cab, etc.). If the manuscript is accepted for publication, supplemental data will not be copy edited or laid out, and authors will not receive a “proof” for supplemental data.
Supplemental units will be published on the Journal of Leukocyte Biology's web site as they were uploaded into the submission system, making it imperative that authors pay close attention to spelling, grammar, punctuation, and other important details. Authors will be charged $150 per unit of supplemental data. Revisions to supplemental data after manuscript acceptance are discouraged and additional author charges may apply when such requests are made.
Submissions that do not meet the requirements for supplemental data may be immediately rejected by the editors or returned to the authors for correction at any stage in the review or post-acceptance production processes.

“Extended Methods” may be published online when needed. Extended Methods may not replace or repeat the Materials and Methods section of the main paper. Extended methods should be noted in Materials and Methods Section of the main text as available online.


Mandatory Submission and Copyright Transfer Form

Authors are required to sign a Mandatory Submission and Copyright Transfer Form when submitting a manuscript. Click here to download this form. Authors of NIH-funded manuscripts must submit the appropriate NIH form with the journal’s Mandatory Submission and Copyright Transfer Form attached.


Accepted Manuscripts

With the cooperation of the authors, research papers are published online within 3–4 weeks of acceptance or receipt of the final and complete version, including figures and files in correct formats. Manuscripts are normally published in final online format and in print within 3–6 months of receipt of the proofs and all pertinent information.

Photos of Published Authors
The Journal of Leukocyte Biology encourages authors of accepted papers to publish photos of themselves in a laboratory / professional setting as a way to introduce them to the journal’s readership. The images will be posted online in the same month in which their articles appear. Authors will be contacted by JLB’s Web staff approximately one month before their article appears online and in print.

The editors require that photos/images meet the following criteria:

  • The image should have a minimum of two people--including the first and corresponding author.
  • People in the pictures should either appear to be working and/or smiling and facing the camera.
  • Faces should be easy to see and not covered or obscured by masks, shields, helmets, or other equipment.
  • Photos of people holding beverages, eating food, playing games, etc. are not acceptable.
  • The background behind individuals in the picture should be a professional or neutral setting. Images taken at beaches, picnics, parks, parties, etc., are not suitable.
  • Individuals in the photo should be dressed professionally--no T-shirts, tank-tops, sandals, shorts, etc.
  • Please do not include animals of any kind.
  • Staff will not "Photoshop" images to make them meet the editor's content requirements.

In addition, images must meet these technical requirements:

  • Images should be submitted in .jpg format. Authors should also include a legend listing those pictured in the image from left to right or front to back. Provide names only. Do not include job/position titles or degrees.
  • Images should be sized to be 226 pixels high by 289 pixels wide.
  • The image's name should include the manuscript number.

Journal staff will make every reasonable attempt to have images that are submitted at other sizes and in other formats reworked to meet these requirements. If an image is unsuitable/unusable for any reason, staff will contact the authors for alternatives. The decision to post--or not post--an image, and the exact date and time that an image is posted is solely the discretion of the journal’s staff.

Proofs
Galley proofs are supplied to the corresponding author as a PDF, along with instructions. Proofs must be returned within 48 hours.

Costs
Excessive alterations to page proofs may lead to additional charges to authors. Page charges for published articles are as follows:

SLB Members: $125 per page

Non-SLB Members: $150 per page

Supplemental data: $150 per unit, maximum of six units. Please read supplemental data policies carefully.

PLEASE NOTE: To join the Society for Leukocyte Biology, click here for an application form.


Author Billing

Authors will be billed using an online payment system. For those who cannot pay by credit card, this system allows authors or their representatives to obtain an invoice, as well as instructions for paying by check or wire transfer. Please note: authors needing an invoice must obtain it through the online bill payment system; journal staff cannot generate invoices. The corresponding author will be provided an estimate of the publication charges when he or she receives his or her article proofs. Authors cannot be billed in advance of this time.


Reprints

Reprints may be ordered in multiples of 50. Authors will be given the opportunity to purchase reprints through the online bill payment system when they pay their publication charges. Non-authors should contact lkimble@faseb.org to purchase reprints of published articles.


Folow this link to read the Submission Instructions

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